<em>Todos Santos</em> in Bolivia: Andean and Christian syncretism

Todos Santos in Bolivia: Andean and Christian syncretism

Luckily I’m here in Bolivia for one of the most important celebrations of the year so I jumped at the chance to witness the Todos Santos holiday up close and personal.  My previous knowledge was limited to piecemeal notions imported from Mexico, but here in Bolivia this special celebration takes on its own particular traditions dating back centuries and is deeply rooted in Andean cosmology.

Life and Death: A Revolving Door

Long before the Spanish arrived, the Andean people viewed life and death as a continuum.  Each spring these two worlds converge — the dead return from the underworld (ukhupacha) to momentarily enjoy the pleasures of life and to deliver happiness and abundance to loved ones in the living world (kaypacha).

This intersection of life and death is the Day of the Dead; its celebration coincides with the Catholic All Saints’ Day holiday in Bolivia.

Rain clouds gathering over Island of the Sun, Lake Titicaca

Rain clouds gathering over Island of the Sun, Lake Titicaca

Todos Santos ceremonializes the never-ending succession of arrival and departure, of renewal and disintegration, of the changing cycles in the natural world around us.  It accompanies the coming wet season, known in Quechua as Aya Markay Killa, when the rains return after the annual period of drought to nourish the dormant crops and begin a new season of growth.

In Andean society, Todos Santos is a celebration of reciprocity.  Knowing the returning dead will be famished and very thirsty after a year in the dry earth, family members prepare the mast’aku, an offering of favorite foods and beverages to be shared during the festivities.  This feast nourishes the bones of the deceased, who in turn bring rains that will ensure abundant crops and livelihood for loved ones.

Receiving the Dead: A Feast for All

Breads are brought to the <em>mast’aku</em> in offering to the hungry spirits

Breads are brought to the mast’aku in offering to the hungry spirits

Todos Santos begins on November 1st with almuerzo, the filling midday meal, when the dead are welcomed home.  The family meal is celebrated in style with rich flavors, prayer, amusing recollections and tales, music and togetherness.

The celebration turns public on November 2nd when farewell festivities move to the burial grounds.  Streets leading to the cemetery host a lively fair.

Street fair approaching the cemetery: flowers, cold drinks, ice cream and merchandise of all sorts

Street fair approaching the cemetery: flowers, cold drinks, ice cream and merchandise of all sorts

Flower vendors, milliners, clowns, artists cram the sidewalks.  Food stalls offer ice cream, orange juice, grilled snacks and colorful candies to celebrants en route to the burial grounds.

Flowers and Food

As families gather in the cemetery, the first order of business is to spruce up the grave sites.   Vases are washed while trash bins overflow with faded flowers and the stems of their replacement bouquets.

Basic Housekeeping: Beautifying the niches of the deceased

Basic Housekeeping: Beautifying the niches of the deceased

Next, another mast’aku (offertory table) is arranged with sentimental items such as a photographs, flowers, toys and personal mementos.  The main contribution is food:  dried fruit, pineapples, oranges, sodas and chicha (fermented corn beer) – an appetizing tribute to the dead.

The offertory <em>mast’aku</em> come in all sizes and styles

The offertory mast’akus come in all sizes and styles

Plentiful masitas (baked goods) adorn every mast’aku: sweet breads in the shape of ladders (representing the Catholic tradition of ascending to Heaven), animals (such as llamas, snakes and birds) and doll-like t’antawawas (literally “bread children”) which date back to Incan times.

Plump <em>niños de pan</em> and wild <em>masitas</em> for sale in the local market

Plump niños de pan and wild masitas for sale in the local market

Earlier in the week the markets of Cochabamba were brimming with vendors selling these masitas.  I watched buyers busily fill their shopping bags in preparation for the Todos Santos festivities.

Assorted sweet breads and cookies for sale in advance of the <em>Todos Santos</em> celebrations

Assorted sweet breads and cookies for sale in advance of the Todos Santos celebrations

I found the heaping stacks of baked goods a marvel, more interesting than the synthetic aisles of manufactured Halloween candies found back home.  I now understand why Señora Celestina (A Kiva borrower in La Paz) has been so busy with her baking business!

Supplication and Song

Reverence imbues the entire cemetery despite the outward and celebratory nature of Todos Santos. Everywhere families join in prayer as children’s voices are heard around every corner:  “…pray for us now and in the time of our death…”

Santa María, Madre de Dios,
ruega por nosotros pecadores,
ahora y en la hora de nuestra muerte.

Children praying with their families at the <em>mast’aku</em>

Children praying with their families at the mast’aku

Partnered with prayer, of course, is music: guitar players and groups of roving mariachi bands play Andean folk tunes, trumpeters blow a mournful rendition of Simon & Garfunkel’s “The Sound of Silence”, and children with pan flutes sing rueful melodies before bowed families.

Roaming minstrels offer songs to the departed

Roaming minstrels offer songs to the departed

Bidding Farewell to the Dead

All these ceremonial elements are crucial to the Todos Santos parting ritual that takes place on November 2nd.  The abundant food, music and prayer energize the spirits as they return once again to the underworld.  Nourished and adored by loved ones, the dead bid farewell to their families and leave the world of the living, ending the precious reunion.

<em>Chola</em> woman at the cemetery in Cochabamba during <em>Todos Santos</em>

Chola woman at the cemetery in Cochabamba during Todos Santos

In another year, a new cycle of growth and abundance will again join the two worlds of kaypacha and ukhupachaTodos Santos will be celebrated once more with all the beauty and vitality that Bolivia inspires.

The resting place of Domitila Barrios de Chúngara, Bolivian labor leader and feminist, who died earlier this year in Cochabamba

The resting place of Domitila Barrios de Chúngara, Bolivian labor leader and feminist, who died earlier this year in Cochabamba


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Comments

Amazing post Peter! Thanks for all the colorful images and capturing the spirit of celebration. I loved reading about the meaning of Todos Santos and seeing the ceremonial elements and culture through the people in the photos going about their traditions. Looking forward to reading more of your posts!

Hey Taline, thanks for the encouraging words... it's really incredible that we all experience such different and spectacular moments in our respective countries even though many of us are tasked with the "same thing" -- the outcomes can be worlds apart. And I love reading the Fellows Blogs, it's especially wonderful to see what my Kiva friends scattered all around the world are up to! Keep up the great work & have lots of fun in the second half of your fellowship! Hugs from Bolivia to my friend in Jordan!

Hey Peter, this is my favorite out off all your great posts so far - I felt I was right there enjoying celebrations too! Your comment on the array of baked goods being more interesting than generic Halloween candies struck a cord with me - it seems indicative of how marvelously engaged Bolivians are with their important traditions. And I want some of those delightful ninos de pan!

Thanks, Marion, it really was a fun day. Sometimes I wonder when all these marvelous traditions will disappear, but then I turn around and some young person is splashing a bit of beer on the ground to thank Pacamama, the Mother Earth. I suspect they will continue for a long time, strong traditions have staying power. And yet another festival this weekend to celebrate the coming rains, these Bolivians know how to party! P.S. I tried those niños de pan... definitely sweeter to look at!

Thanks for the great post Peter. There is so much to know about our world.

I appreciate you taking time to read the post, Mark. It is such a fascinating world, so many interesting things to observe, learn and enjoy!

Very nice post Peter....I loved your photos of the holiday treats. The family members that have passed away must be salivating from above as they see the array of breads and sweet things that have been baked for them. I look forward to returning soon.

Hey Paul, yes indeed, the departed are treated to fine foods and celebrations... Bolivian-style! Such a wonderful way to honor and remember the loved ones who are no longer with us, Todos Santos is really a beautiful day.

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